What is Pointer?

What is Pointer?

In computer science, a pointer is a programming language object, whose value refers to (or “points to”) another value stored elsewhere in the computer memory using its address. A pointer references a location in memory, and obtaining the value stored at that location is known as dereferencing the pointer.

As an analogy, a page number in a book’s index could be considered a pointer to the corresponding page; dereferencing such a pointer would be done by flipping to the page with the given page number.

The term “Pointer” can also be defined as

  1. A variable does not store a value but store the address of the memory space which contains the value.
  2. A variable that contains the address of a location in memory. The location is the starting point of an allocated object, such as an object or value type, or the element of an array.
  3. A value that designates the address (i.e., the location in memory), of some value.
  4. Variables that hold a memory location.
  5. A memory address.

In general, Pointer is a long thin piece of metal on a scale or dial that moves to indicate a figure or position.

What is Logical Block Addressing (LBA)?

Logical Block Address (LBA)

Logical block addressing is a technique that allows a computer to address a hard disk larger than 528 megabytes. A Logical Block Address (LBA) is a 28-bit value that maps to a specific cylinder-head-sector address on the disk. 28 bits allows sufficient variation to specify addresses on a hard disk up to 8.4 gigabytes in data storage capacity.

The term “Logical block addressing” can also be defined as

  1. An address that defines where data is stored on the hard drive.
  2. A common scheme used for specifying the location of blocks of data stored on computer storage devices.
  3. A run-time function of the system BIOS. The BIOS uses LBA for the following commands: read (with and without retries), read verify, read long, write (with and without retries), write verify, write long, read multiple, write multiple, read DMA, write DMA, seek, and format track.

What is Storage?

storage-device-computer

 

In a computer, storage is the place where data is held in an electromagnetic or optical form for access by a computer processor. There are two general usages.

  1. Storage is frequently used to mean the devices and data connected to the computer through input/output operations – that is, hard disk and tape systems and other forms of storage that don’t include computer memory and other in-computer storage. For the enterprise, the options for this kind of storage are of much greater variety and expense than that related to memory. This meaning is probably more common in the IT industry than meaning 2 (the following).
  2. In a more formal usage, storage has been divided into:
    1. Primary storage, which holds data in memory (sometimes called random access memory or RAM) and other “built-in” devices such as the processor’s L1 cache, and
    2. Ssecondary storage, which holds data on hard disks, tapes, and other devices requiring input/output operations.

Primary storage is much faster to access than secondary storage because of the proximity of the storage to the processor or because of the nature of the storage devices. On the other hand, secondary storage can hold much more data than primary storage.

In addition to RAM, primary storage includes read-only memory (ROM) and L1 and L2 cache memory. In addition to hard disks, secondary storage includes a range of device types and technologies, including diskettes, Zip drives, redundant array of independent disks (RAID) systems, and holographic storage. Devices that hold storage are collectively known as storage media.

A somewhat antiquated term for primary storage is main storage and a somewhat antiquated term for secondary storage is auxiliary storage. Note that, to add to the confusion, there is an additional meaning for primary storage that distinguishes actively used storage from backup storage.

Interview Question : What is Hard Disk?

what-is-hard-disk-drive-hdd

A hard disk is part of a unit, often called a “disk drive,” “hard drive,” or “hard disk drive (HDD),” that stores and provides relatively quick access to large amounts of data on an electromagnetically charged surface or set of surfaces. Today’s computers typically come with a hard disk that contains several billion bytes (gigabytes) of storage.

A Hard disk can also be defined as:

  1. a rigid (“hard”) non-removable magnetic disk with a large data storage capacity.
  2. a data storage device used for storing and retrieving digital information using one or more rigid (“hard”) rapidly rotating disks (platters) coated with magnetic material.
  3. A magnetic disk on which you can store computer data. The term hard is used to distinguish it from a soft, or floppy disk. Hard disks hold more data and are faster than floppy disks.

Extra Information

A hard disk is really a set of stacked “disks,” each of which, like phonograph records, has data recorded electromagnetically in concentric circles or “tracks” on the disk. A “head” (something like a phonograph arm but in a relatively fixed position) records (writes) or reads the information on the tracks. Two heads, one on each side of a disk, read or write the data as the disk spins. Each read or write operation requires that data be located, which is an operation called a “seek.” (Data already in a disk cache, however, will be located more quickly.)

A hard disk/drive unit comes with a set rotation speed varying from 4500 to 7200 rpm. Disk access time is measured in milliseconds. Although the physical location can be identified with cylinder, track, and sector locations, these are actually mapped to a logical block address (LBA) that works with the larger address range on today’s hard disks.

To know more regarding the terms follow the post about Difference between Disc and Disk click here.

 

Interview Question : What is Synonyms in Database Engine?

A synonym is a database object that serves the following purposes:

  • Provides an alternative name for another database object, referred to as the base object, that can exist on a local or remote server.
  • Provides a layer of abstraction that protects a client application from changes made to the name or location of the base object.

For example, consider the Employee table of Adventure Works, located on a server named Server1. To reference this table from another server, Server2, a client application would have to use the four-part name Server1.AdventureWorks.Person.Employee. Also, if the location of the table were to change, for example, to another server, the client application would have to be modified to reflect that change.

To address both these issues, you can create a synonym, EmpTable, on Server2 for the Employee table on Server1. Now, the client application only has to use the single-part name, EmpTable, to reference the Employee table. Also, if the location of the Employee table changes, you will have to modify the synonym, EmpTable, to point to the new location of the Employee table. Because there is no ALTER SYNONYM statement, you first have to drop the synonym, EmpTable, and then re-create the synonym with the same name, but point the synonym to the new location of Employee.

A synonym cannot be the base object for another synonym, and a synonym cannot reference a user-defined aggregate function.

50 Common Interview Questions and Tips

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50 Common Interview Questions and Tips:

Review these typical interview questions and think about how you would answer them. Read the questions listed; you will also find some strategy suggestions with it.

1. Tell me about yourself:

The most often asked question in interviews. You need to have a short statement prepared in your mind. Be careful that it does not sound rehearsed. Limit it to work-related items unless instructed otherwise. Talk about things you have done and jobs you have held that relate to the position you are interviewing for. Start with the item farthest back and work up to the present.

2. Why did you leave your last job?

Stay positive regardless of the circumstances. Never refer to a major problem with management and never speak ill of supervisors, co- workers or the organization. If you do, you will be the one looking bad. Keep smiling and talk about leaving for a positive reason such as an opportunity, a chance to do something special or other forward- looking reasons.

3. What experience do you have in this field?

Speak about specifics that relate to the position you are applying for. If you do not have specific experience, get as close as you can.

4. Do you consider yourself successful?

You should always answer yes and briefly explain why. A good explanation is that you have set goals, and you have met some and are on track to achieve the others.

5. What do co-workers say about you?

Be prepared with a quote or two from co-workers. Either a specific statement or a paraphrase will work. Jill Clark, a co-worker at Smith Company, always said I was the hardest workers she had ever known. It is as powerful as Jill having said it at the interview herself.

6. What do you know about this organization?

This question is one reason to do some research on the organization before the interview. Find out where they have been and where they are going. What are the current issues and who are the major players?

7. What have you done to improve your knowledge in the last year?

Try to include improvement activities that relate to the job. A wide variety of activities can be mentioned as positive self-improvement. Have some good ones handy to mention.

8. Are you applying for other jobs?

Be honest but do not spend a lot of time in this area. Keep the focus on this job and what you can do for this organization. Anything else is a distraction.

9. Why do you want to work for this organization?

This may take some thought and certainly, should be based on the research you have done on the organization. Sincerity is extremely important here and will easily be sensed. Relate it to your long-term career goals.

10. Do you know anyone who works for us?

Be aware of the policy on relatives working for the organization. This can affect your answer even though they asked about friends not relatives. Be careful to mention a friend only if they are well thought of.

11. What kind of salary do you need?
A loaded question. A nasty little game that you will probably lose if you answer first. So, do not answer it. Instead, say something like, That’s a tough question. Can you tell me the range for this position? In most cases, the interviewer, taken off guard, will tell you. If not, say that it can depend on the details of the job. Then give a wide range.

12. Are you a team player?
You are, of course, a team player. Be sure to have examples ready. Specifics that show you often perform for the good of the team rather than for yourself are good evidence of your team attitude. Do not brag, just say it in a matter-of-fact tone. This is a key point.

13. How long would you expect to work for us if hired?

Specifics here are not good. Something like this should work: I’d like it to be a long time. Or As long as we both feel I’m doing a good job.
14. Have you ever had to fire anyone? How did you feel about that?

This is serious. Do not make light of it or in any way seem like you like to fire people. At the same time, you will do it when it is the right thing to do. When it comes to the organization versus the individual who has created a harmful situation, you will protect the organization. Remember firing is not the same as layoff or reduction in force.

15. What is your philosophy towards work?

The interviewer is not looking for a long or flowery dissertation here. Do you have strong feelings that the job gets done? Yes. That’s the type of answer that works best here. Short and positive, showing a benefit to the organization.

16. If you had enough money to retire right now, would you?

Answer yes if you would. But since you need to work, this is the type of work you prefer. Do not say yes if you do not mean it.

17. Have you ever been asked to leave a position?

If you have not, say no. If you have, be honest, brief and avoid saying negative things about the people or organization involved.

18. Explain how you would be an asset to this organization.

You should be anxious for this question. It gives you a chance to highlight your best points as they relate to the position being discussed. Give a little advance thought to this relationship.

19. Why should we hire you?

Point out how your assets meet what the organization needs. Do not mention any other candidates to make a comparison.

20. Tell me about a suggestion you have made.

Have a good one ready. Be sure and use a suggestion that was accepted and was then considered successful. One related to the type of work applied for is a real plus.

21. What irritates you about co-workers?

This is a trap question. Think real hard but fail to come up with anything that irritates you. A short statement that you seem to get along with folks is great.

22. What is your greatest strength?

Numerous answers are good, just stay positive. A few good examples: Your ability to prioritize, Your problem-solving skills, Your ability to work under pressure, Your ability to focus on projects, Your professional expertise, Your leadership skills, Your positive attitude

23. Tell me about your dream job.

Stay away from a specific job. You cannot win. If you say the job you are contending for is it, you strain credibility. If you say another job is it, you plant the suspicion that you will be dissatisfied with this position if hired. The best is to stay genetic and say something like: A job where I love the work, like the people, can contribute and can’t wait to get to work.

24. Why do you think you would do well at this job?

Give several reasons and include skills, experience and interest.

25. What are you looking for in a job?

See answer # 23

26. What kind of person would you refuse to work with?

Do not be trivial. It would take disloyalty to the organization, violence or lawbreaking to get you to object. Minor objections will label you as a whiner.

27. What is more important to you: the money or the work?

Money is always important, but the work is the most important. There is no better answer.

28. What would your previous supervisor say your strongest point is?

There are numerous good possibilities:
Loyalty, Energy, Positive attitude, Leadership, Team player, Expertise, Initiative, Patience, Hard work, Creativity, Problem solver

29. Tell me about a problem you had with a supervisor.

Biggest trap of all. This is a test to see if you will speak ill of your boss. If you fall for it and tell about a problem with a former boss, you may well below the interview right there. Stay positive and develop a poor memory about any trouble with a supervisor.

30. What has disappointed you about a job?

Don’t get trivial or negative. Safe areas are few but can include:
Not enough of a challenge. You were laid off in a reduction Company did not win a contract, which would have given you more responsibility.

31. Tell me about your ability to work under pressure.

You may say that you thrive under certain types of pressure. Give an example that relates to the type of position applied for.

32. Do your skills match this job or another job more closely?

Probably this one. Do not give fuel to the suspicion that you may want another job more than this one.

33. What motivates you to do your best on the job?

This is a personal trait that only you can say, but good examples are: Challenge, Achievement, Recognition

34. Are you willing to work overtime? Nights? Weekends?

This is up to you. Be totally honest.

35. How would you know you were successful on this job?

Several ways are good measures:
You set high standards for yourself and meet them. Your outcomes are a success.Your boss tell you that you are successful

36. Would you be willing to relocate if required?

You should be clear on this with your family prior to the interview if you think there is a chance it may come up. Do not say yes just to get the job if the real answer is no. This can create a lot of problems later on in your career. Be honest at this point and save yourself uture grief.

37. Are you willing to put the interests of the organization ahead of your own?

This is a straight loyalty and dedication question. Do not worry about the deep ethical and philosophical implications. Just say yes.

38. Describe your management style.

Try to avoid labels. Some of the more common labels, like progressive, salesman or consensus, can have several meanings or descriptions depending on which management expert you listen to. The situational style is safe, because it says you will manage according to the situation, instead of one size fits all.

39. What have you learned from mistakes on the job?

Here you have to come up with something or you strain credibility. Make it small, well intentioned mistake with a positive lesson learned. An example would be working too far ahead of colleagues on a project and thus throwing coordination off.

40. Do you have any blind spots?

Trick question. If you know about blind spots, they are no longer blind spots. Do not reveal any personal areas of concern here. Let them do their own discovery on your bad points. Do not hand it to them.

41. If you were hiring a person for this job, what would you look for?

Be careful to mention traits that are needed and that you have.

42. Do you think you are overqualified for this position?

Regardless of your qualifications, state that you are very well qualified for the position.

43. How do you propose to compensate for your lack of experience?

First, if you have experience that the interviewer does not know about, bring that up: Then, point out (if true) that you are a hard working quick learner.

44. What qualities do you look for in a boss?

Be generic and positive. Safe qualities are knowledgeable, a sense of humor, fair, loyal to subordinates and holder of high standards. All bosses think they have these traits.

45. Tell me about a time when you helped resolve a dispute between others.

Pick a specific incident. Concentrate on your problem solving technique and not the dispute you settled.

46. What position do you prefer on a team working on a project?

Be honest. If you are comfortable in different roles, point that out.

47. Describe your work ethic.

Emphasize benefits to the organization. Things like, determination to get the job done and work hard but enjoy your work are good.

48. What has been your biggest professional disappointment?

Be sure that you refer to something that was beyond your control. Show acceptance and no negative feelings.

49. Tell me about the most fun you have had on the job.

Talk about having fun by accomplishing something for the organization.

50. Do you have any questions for me?

Always have some questions prepared. Questions prepared where you will be an asset to the organization are good. How soon will I be able to be productive? and What type of projects will I be able to assist on? are examples.

And Finally Good Luck

 

Interview Question : What is Thread?

Quad Core processor and Threads Winged Post

A thread is a single sequential flow of control within a program. the threads of a computer program allows the program to execute sequential actions or many actions at once. Each thread in a program identifies a process that runs when the program asks it to.

The term “Thread” can also be defined as

  1. a smallest unit of processing that can be scheduled by an Operating System.
  2. a portion of code that may be executed independently of the main program.
  3. an ordered sequence of instructions that tells the computer what to do
  4. In online discussion, a thread can refer to a series of related messages.
  5. In e-mail, a thread can refer to a series of replies back and forth pertaining a certain message.

Extended Information:

All programmers are familiar with writing sequential programs. You’ve probably written a program that displays “Hello World!” or sorts a list of names or computes a list of prime numbers. These are sequential programs. That is, each has a beginning, an execution sequence, and an end. At any given time during the runtime of the program, there is a single point of execution.

A thread is similar to the sequential programs described above. A single thread also has a beginning, a sequence, and an end. At any given time during the runtime of the thread, there is a single point of execution. However, a thread itself is not a program; a thread cannot run on its own. Rather, it runs within a program.

Some texts call a thread, a lightweight process. A thread is similar to a real process in that both have a single sequential flow of control. However, a thread is considered lightweight because it runs within the context of a full-blown program and takes advantage of the resources allocated for that program and the program’s environment.

Multiple threads can exists within the same process and share resources such as memory, while different processes do not share these resources.

 

Source / Courtesy : WiseGeek

Interview Question : What is Object Oriented Programming?

Object Oriented Programming Languages - Winged Post

Object Oriented Programming (OOP) is a type of programming in which programmers define not only the data type of a data structure, but also the types of operations (functions) that can be applied to the data structure. In this way, the data structure becomes an object that includes both data and functions. In addition, programmers can create relationships between one object and another. For example, objects can inherit characteristics from other objects.

The Object Oriented Programming can also be defined as:

1. A style of programming that focuses on using objects to design and build applications.

2. Object oriented programming (OOP) is a model of programming language that focuses on the use of objects instead of actions in order to carry out tasks. This involves taking an approach that is more mindful of data and less concerned with logic, which is more commonly the case in other programming paradigms.

3. Object-oriented programming (OOP) is a programming paradigm based on the concept of “objects”, which are data structures that contain data, in the form of fields, often known as attributes; and code, in the form of procedures, often known as methods.

 

For your information, the following are some additional concepts associated with the Object Oriented Programming:

  1. Encapsulation means that a group of related properties, methods, and other members are treated as a single unit or object.
  2. Inheritance describes the ability to create new classes based on an existing class.
  3. Polymorphism means that you can have multiple classes that can be used interchangeably, even though each class implements the same properties or methods in different ways.

 

Interview Question : Define Array.

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Array is a data structure consisting of a collection of elements (values or variables), each identified by at least one array index or key. An array is stored so that the position of each element can be computed from its index tuple by a mathematical formula. The simplest type of data structure is a linear array, also called one-dimensional array.  We can also define a array as a container object which holds a fixed number of values of a single data type.

array data structure Winged Post

Arrays are among the oldest and most important data structures, and are used by almost every program. They are also used to implement many other data structures, such as lists and strings. They effectively exploit the addressing logic of computers. In most modern computers and many external storage devices, the memory is a one-dimensional array of words, whose indices are their addresses. Processors, especially vector processors, are often optimized for array operations.

Arrays are useful mostly because the element indices can be computed at run time. Among other things, this feature allows a single iterative statement to process arbitrarily many elements of an array. For that reason, the elements of an array data structure are required to have the same size and should use the same data representation.

The following are also the definitions of array in the area other than computer programming:

  • In general, an array is a number of items arranged in some specified way – for example, in a list or in a three-dimensional table.
  • In random access memory (RAM), an array is the arrangement of memory cells.
  • In data storage, an array (disk array) is a method for storing information on multiple devices. A disk array is a hardware element that contains a large group of hard disk drives (HDDs).

Interview Question: Difference between LinkedList vs ArrayList in Java?

Introduction:

LinkedList and ArrayList both implement List Interface but how they work internally is where the differences lies. Main difference between ArrayList and LinkedList is that ArrayList is implemented using re-sizable array while LinkedList is implemented using doubly LinkedList. ArrayList is more popular among Java programmer than LinkedList as there are few scenarios on which LinkedList is a suitable collection than ArrayList. In this article we will see some differences between LinkedList and ArrayList and try to find out when and where to use LinkedList over ArrayList.

difference between arraylist and linkedlist - WingedPostThe Differences:

  1. Since Array is an index based data-structure searching or getting element from Array with index is pretty fast. Array provides O(1) performance for get(index) method but remove is costly in ArrayList as you need to rearrange all elements. On the Other hand LinkedList doesn’t provide Random or index based access and you need to iterate over linked list to retrieve any element which is of order O(n).
  2. Insertions  are easy and fast in LinkedList as compared to ArrayList because there is no risk of resizing array and copying content to new array if array gets full which makes adding into ArrayList of O(n) in worst case, while adding is O(1) operation in LinkedList in Java. ArrayList also needs to update its index if you insert something anywhere except at the end of array.
  3. Removal is like insertions better in LinkedList than ArrayList.
  4. LinkedList has more memory overhead than ArrayList because in ArrayList each index only holds actual object (data) but in case of LinkedList each node holds both data and address of next  and previous node.